The optimal sequence and selection of screening test items to predict fall risk in older disabled women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.
Lamb SE., McCabe C., Becker C., Fried LP., Guralnik JM.
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of disability, dependence, and death in older people. Brief screening algorithms may be helpful in identifying risk and leading to more detailed assessment. Our aim was to determine the most effective sequence of falls screening test items from a wide selection of recommended items including self-report and performance tests, and to compare performance with other published guidelines. METHODS: Data were from a prospective, age-stratified, cohort study. Participants were 1002 community-dwelling women aged 65 years old or older, experiencing at least some mild disability. Assessments of fall risk factors were conducted in participants' homes. Fall outcomes were collected at 6 monthly intervals. Algorithms were built for prediction of any fall over a 12-month period using tree classification with cross-set validation. RESULTS: Algorithms using performance tests provided the best prediction of fall events, and achieved moderate to strong performance when compared to commonly accepted benchmarks. The items selected by the best performing algorithm were the number of falls in the last year and, in selected subpopulations, frequency of difficulty balancing while walking, a 4 m walking speed test, body mass index, and a test of knee extensor strength. The algorithm performed better than that from the American Geriatric Society/British Geriatric Society/American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and other guidance, although these findings should be treated with caution. CONCLUSIONS: Suggestions are made on the type, number, and sequence of tests that could be used to maximize estimation of the probability of falling in older disabled women.